The impasse gives Congress little time to resolve the matter before Sept. 30, the end of the current fiscal year.
Along party lines, the House had approved a continuing resolution to fund the government through Nov. 30.
At the center of the partisan dispute is how to fund disaster relief. Senate Democrats want $6.9 billion provided without cutting other areas of the budget, going against previous proposals from some Republican lawmakers.
Congress last agreed on a continuing resolution in April, avoiding a government shutdown.
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